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- 06/01/17--06:52: _MP3 New Releases We...
- 06/01/17--06:57: _North Mississippi A...
- 06/01/17--07:36: _U2 – The Joshua Tre...
- 06/01/17--07:51: _Omar Souleyman - To...
- 06/01/17--08:02: _[RUS] (Фолк-рок, Ба...
- 06/01/17--08:54: _VA - 60s Classics U...
- 06/01/17--08:54: _VA - Number 1s Ulti...
- 06/01/17--10:11: _Thea Gilmore – The ...
- 06/01/17--10:35: _Hip Deep in Norther...
- 06/01/17--12:36: _Kano Photo Essay
- 06/01/17--12:36: _Abdalla Uba Adamu: ...
- 06/01/17--12:36: _Carmen McCain: The ...
- 06/01/17--12:37: _ULRIKA SPACEK MODE...
- 06/01/17--15:06: _ΜΙΚΡΑ ΚΕΙΜΕΝΑ ΑΠΟ Τ...
- 06/01/17--17:44: _Ennanga Vision-Enna...
- 06/01/17--21:05: _(World,Ethnic) [WEB...
- 06/01/17--23:01: _Camille – OUÏ (2017)
- 06/01/17--23:21: _Bob Marley and The ...
- 06/01/17--23:52: _Moon Duo – Killing ...
- 06/02/17--00:06: _(Country Rock) Whee...
- 06/01/17--06:52: MP3 New Releases Week 21 (2017)
- 06/01/17--06:57: North Mississippi Allstars – Prayer for Peace (2017)
- 06/01/17--07:36: U2 – The Joshua Tree [Super Deluxe] (2017)
- 06/01/17--07:51: Omar Souleyman - To Syria, With Love (2017)
- 06/01/17--08:54: VA - 60s Classics Ultimate Collection (5CD) (2017)
- 06/01/17--08:54: VA - Number 1s Ultimate Collection (5CD) (2017)
- 06/01/17--10:11: Thea Gilmore – The Counterweight [Deluxe Edition] (2017)
- 06/01/17--10:35: Hip Deep in Northern Nigeria
- 06/01/17--12:36: Kano Photo Essay
- 06/01/17--12:36: Carmen McCain: The Culture of Kannywood
- 06/01/17--12:37: ULRIKA SPACEK MODERN ENGLISH DECORATION - 2017
- 06/01/17--15:06: ΜΙΚΡΑ ΚΕΙΜΕΝΑ ΑΠΟ ΤΟ FACEBOOK 24
- 06/01/17--17:44: Ennanga Vision-Ennanga Vision-(SNDWD105)-WEB-2017-MOHAWK
- 06/01/17--23:01: Camille – OUÏ (2017)
- 06/01/17--23:21: Bob Marley and The Wailers – Exodus 40 [Deluxe Edition] (2017)
- 06/01/17--23:52: Moon Duo – Killing Time [Expanded Edition] (2017)
- 06/02/17--00:06: (Country Rock) Wheeler Walker Jr - Ol' Wheeler - 2017, MP3, 320 kbps
2017 | VA | MP3 | 128-320 kbps | Joint-Stereo | 4,14 GB
Genre: Pop, Rock, Electronic, Dance, RnB, etc
320 kbps | 102 MB | LINKS
North Mississippi Allstars are back with PRAYER FOR PEACE and couldn’t we all use one of those right about now? Founded in 1996 by brothers Luther (guitar and vocals) and Cody Dickinson (drums, piano, synth bass, programming and vocals), the now venerable band are entering their second decade with what is unquestionably the most vital album of their brilliant career. Released by Sony Legacy, PRAYER FOR PEACE sees North Mississippi Allstars continuing to think globally following 2013’s Earth-shaking WORLD BOOGIE IS COMING. That album, the band’s seventh studio recording, proved the planetary sensation its title promised, with The Guardian simply declaring it the North Mississippi Allstars’ “best yet.” Now North Mississippi Allstars weave their bred-to-the-bone musical sensibility with a potent message of positivity, inclusion, family, and hope. As ever, songs like the powerhouse title track and “You Got To Move” – the latter featuring accompaniment from Hill Country Blues guitar hero Kenny Brown and award-winning singer/bassist Danielle Nicole – pay homage to the band’s long lineage of musical heroes, celebrating the blues’ extraordinary legacy while reshaping and pushing it into contemporary relevance with fatback funk, slippery soul, and pure unadulterated rock ‘n’ roll.
The majority of PRAYER FOR PEACE was recorded at Memphis’ famed Royal Studios with the great Boo Mitchell behind the board. The hard-touring band also recorded as they traveled the country, lighting up studios in St. Louis, Kansas City, New Orleans, Brooklyn, Austin, and of course, their legendary father Jim Dickinson’s Zebra Ranch in the Allstars’ own Hernando, MS. A number of old friends join the congregation, among them bassist Oteil Burbridge (Allman Brothers Band, Dead & Company), Graeme Lesh (Midnight North, The Terrapin Family Band), vocalist Sharisse Norman, bassist Dominic Davis (Jack White), and singer/fife player Shardé Thomas, daughter of Mississippi blues giant Otha Turner. Simultaneously master curators, expert revivalists and forward-thinking visionaries, the Dickinson brothers have crafted their most daringly creative and provocatively topical collection to date. PRAYER FOR PEACE stands tall as yet another milestone marking North Mississippi Allstars own unique place in the American musical tradition.
320 kbps | 501 MB | LINKS
U2 will celebrate the 30th anniversary of their 1987 album The Joshua Tree this June, with three new editions of the album, including a four-CD super deluxe edition box set.
The super deluxe edition box set (which is also available as a 7LP vinyl set) includes a remastered version of the album (update: there is a suggestion, but not official confirmation that they are using the 2007 remaster), 17 tracks performed Live at Madison Square Garden in 1987 (featuring most of the album), a disc of new remixes and a B-sides and outtakes CD. That final disc repeats most of the tracks on the bonus CD included in the 20th anniversary reissue (the SDE of which was a 2CD+DVD set), although it omits the single edit of Where the Streets Have No Name and adds an unreleased alternate mix of I Still Haven’t Found What I’m Looking For (called the ‘Lillywhite Alternative Mix ’87’) and a new 2017 mix of One Tree Hill (called One Tree Hill Reprise) courtesy of Brian Eno.
CD 1 – The Joshua Tree double album
01. Where The Streets Have No Name
02. I Still Haven’t Found What I’m Looking For
03. With Or Without You
04. Bullet The Blue Sky
05. Running To Stand Still
06. Red Hill Mining Town
07. In God’s Country
08. Trip Through Your Wires
09. One Tree Hill
11. Mothers Of The Disappeared
CD2 – The Joshua Tree Live at Madison Square Garden 1987
01. Where The Streets Have No Name (Live)
02. I Will Follow (Live)
03. Trip Through Your Wires (Live)
04. Medley: I Still Haven’t Found What I’m Looking For / Exodus (Live)
05. MLK (Live)
06. Bullet The Blue Sky (Live)
07. Running To Stand Still (Live)
08. In God’s Country (Live)
09. Sunday Bloody Sunday (Live)
10. Medley: Exit / Gloria (Live)
11. October (Live)
12. New Year’s Day (Live)
13. Pride (In The Name Of Love) (Live)
14. With Or Without You (Live)
15. Party Girl (Live)
16. I Still Haven’t Found What I’m Looking For (Live / Choir Version)
17. ’40’ (Live)
CD3 – The Joshua Tree Remixes
01. One Tree Hill (St Francis Hotel Remix)
02. Bullet The Blue Sky (Jacknife Lee Remix)
03. Running To Stand Still (Daniel Lanois Remix)
04. Red Hill Mining Town (Steve Lillywhite 2017 Mix)
05. With Or Without You (Daniel Lanois Remix)
06. Where The Streets Have No Name (Flood Remix)
CD4 – The Joshua Tree B-Sides & Outtakes
01. Luminous Times (Hold On To Love)
02. Walk To The Water
03. Spanish Eyes
04. Deep In The Heart
05. Silver And Gold
06. Sweetest Thing
07. Race Against Time
08. I Still Haven’t Found What I’m Looking For (Lillywhite Alternative Mix ’87)
09. One Tree Hill Reprise (Brian Eno 2017 Mix)
10. Silver And Gold (Sun City)
11. Beautiful Ghost / Introduction To Songs Of Experience
12. Wave Of Sorrow (Birdland)
13. Desert Of Our Love
14. Rise Up
15. Drunk Chicken / America
Федор Чистяков / За седьмым перевалом Жанр : Фолк-рок, Баян Носитель : CD Страна-производитель диска : Россия Год издания : 1999 Издатель (лейбл) : Отделение "ВЫХОД" Номер по каталогу : В 103 Страна : Россия Аудиокодек : MP3 Битрейт аудио : 320 kbps Продолжительность : 52:24 Источник (релизер) : извлечён из Наличие сканов в содержимом раздачи : да Треклист : 1.
Mp3 CBR 320 kbps | Pop, Rock, Dance | 4:37:05 | 5 CD | 714 Mb
Mp3 CBR 320 kbps | Pop, Dance, Reggae, Electro, Disco | 05:51:26 | 5CD | 885 Mb
320 kbps | 148 MB | LINKS
Thea Gilmore has announced her brand new studio album The Counterweight, which will be released on June 2nd through Cooking Vinyl. The first single to be taken from the album, the rallying anthem ‘Sounds Good To Me’, is out now.
“I like to think of it as a bit of an anarchist’s polka…” says Thea of the single. “Calling the dispossessed, the downtrodden, the weary to arms. Lighting a fire… remembering there’s more than one way to live and who wants to walk when you can dance!”
It’s been 13 years and eight albums since Thea released Avalanche, her critically acclaimed fifth release and the album deemed to be her breakthrough record. The then 23-year-old was writing with a fire inside her post 9/11 about global anxiety and the increasingly vacuous celebrity culture.
Calling upon the spirit of this predecessor, Thea is back with the album she feels follows it. Having never entirely lost her voice of protest, on subsequent albums Thea was looking inward more, singing songs about the depression she had been diagnosed with, love songs in uncertain times and songs about parenthood.
Kano State in northwest Nigeria is a land of paradox. The ancient home of the Hausa people, it has ties back to the oldest civilizations in West Africa. Muslim since around the 12th century, the region remained largely self-administered during the era of British colonialism, and never significantly adapted Christianity or Western culture and values as in other parts of Nigeria. In 2000, Kano instituted Shariah law. But by that time, the city of Kano was also the center of a large and active film industry, dubbed Kannywood. And it would soon be home to a nascent coterie of hip-hop artists. There have been a series of high-profile conflicts and crises between these forces of religion, politics and art in the years since. But as the Afropop crew discovered, Kano has achieved a delicate balance that allows film and music to continue apace under the watchful eye of clerics and a censorship board. We visit studios producing local nanaye music, with its echoes of Hausa tradition and Indian film music. We also meet young Hausa hip-hop artists striving to develop careers under uniquely challenging circumstances.
Lots to take in on “Hip Deep in Northern Nigeria.” Here are some visuals from Kano, a serene, complicated city, Nigeria’s second largest. Starting off with actor Mustafa “Musty” who, joined by filmmaker Salisu Almustapha, introduced Banning Eyre and Sean Barlow to a brilliant array of singers, producers, actors, agents and Kannywood executives, not to mention the Kano State Censorship Board. Well, stories elsewhere. Here, feast your eyes…
Photos by Banning Eyre.
Musty on set
Jamila Ahmad, nanaye singer
Salisu recommends a film
Ado Ahmad Gidan Dabino
Sean Barlow with manager of the Tahrir Guest Palace
Musty as cameraman (he’s good!)
Hausa traditional music CDs
Nanaye producer and singer Ali Jita
Nanaye producer Ahmad M Sadiq
Ismail Na Abba Affakelah and Banning Eyre at the Kano State Censorship Board
Ismail Na Abba Affakelah, former film producer and executive director of the Kano State Censorship Board
Hand of producer Ahmad M Sadiq, at work
Engineer Ali G recording Maryam Sangandali
Banning and Billy O at Dala FM. (photo by Musty)
Hip Hop summit at Freedom Radio, February 2017
Oumar Iba Issa, AKA Dabo da Prof
Mujahid Aliyu Usaman
Nasiru Garba Supa group
Sean interviewing Nasiru
Sean dancing to Nasiru
Mustafa “Musty” and Hassan Mohamad Sharif
Shaaibu Lilisko, Kannywood choreographer
Nanaye producer/singer Rabiu Dalle and Banning Eyre
Tagwayan Asali, Hausa hip-hop duo, and identical twins
Nomiis Gee at Arewa 24 in Kano (Eyre, 2017)
Nazir M Ahmed and Banning Eyre
Producer/singer Yakubu Adamu Abdullahi (YAKS)
Hausa hip-hop artist, M Zee
Abdalla Uba Adamu is a professor of both Science Education and Mass Communication at Bayero University in Kano, Nigeria. He specializes in media and cultural education, particularly the interface between Islamic religion, Hausa culture and media—film, music and literature. When we visited Kano in February 2017, the professor was temporarily serving as vice chancellor of a university in Abuja. So we were lucky to catch him on a visit back to Kano. We met in his office, which is open to the street and frequented by students, colleagues and friends eager to get even a brief audience with this charismatic and influential man. As such we had an audience for our interview, which was most generous, lasting over two hours. Professor Adamu is a remarkable man, brilliant, charming, funny and extremely well connected. From the biggest nanaye pop singer to the most underground rappers, musicians not only defer to, but revere the professor. Here are extended excerpts from our conversation. For much more, visit http://www.auadamu.com/.
Banning Eyre: How did Indian films come to have such a big influence up here in Hausa land?
Abdalla Uba Adamu: The Hausa are very conservative, religiously. So when foreign ideas start coming in, they absorb them based on their understanding of the relationship between the foreign idea and their own idea, and how their own idea fits in with what they do. So music or literature or film that fits in with their social reality are easily accepted. And that that does not fit into their social reality is rejected. And that is why they like Indian films a lot, because the Indian films seem to capture a social reality that is closer to their own social realities. So you have some kind of resonance what they see people doing and what they are doing.
And so, at the beginning, nobody seemed to care about all that, but then eventually got into a situation of some people started transcribe some of the Indian films into a literature, local language literature. And that caused a lot of problems because it uses the word love. The character would say to another character, of course male and female, “I love you.” And that is wrong. That is absolutely wrong. Love has a very unusual status in Hausa language. You can only use it in the matrimonial sense. A husband can tell his wife, “I love you.” And a wife can tell her husband, “I love you.” But beside that, you cannot use the love in any other context. Because it will lead to misunderstanding.
So because of the link with the word love, and maybe sexuality, the public culture started arguing that the writers were simply giving a license for immoral behavior. That eventually led to the establishment of a censorship board to make sure that these things do not happen. And eventually we had the hisbah board, which is the moral police.
Let’s go back to history a little. Tell us about the Hausa and how things have unfolded in the north of Nigeria.
There have always been a lot of contentious issues about the origin. Who originates whom? Where do people come from? And I think in 2017 we have gone beyond all that. Nobody is interested in where somebody’s coming from, because we don’t have data. We don’t have conclusive proof. It’s all speculation. So we try to de-emphasize the issue of origins. But part of the origin legend has been distorted.
For instance, on of the things you find on the Internet is that there’s a guy called Bayajidda, who established the Hausa state. That’s wrong. When Bayajidda, if he ever existed at all, did arrive in the area that is now called Hausaland, he already met some people. He met a queen and a king. He met an empire. So he couldn’t be a founder when there was already something. What was there to found? There were people. He married the queen, for crying out loud, because he killed a snake or something like that.
But he was the progenitor of the people who established political entities that became later on known as Hausaland. So that is the first myth that people have been given, that somebody from Baghdad, some kind of traveling warrior established Hausaland. He didn’t.
I have read that. And when did this happen?
Something like the seventh or eighth century. The establishment of the city states was about 1080.
Photos by Banning Eyre.
It is interesting the way the folks who are around now always want to erase the ones who were there before. We have the same thing in America, this idea that there were very few Indians before the colonizers arrived, whereas in fact, there were large civilizations.
And of course you have this idea that a white guy or an Arab came from the East. Everybody likes to believe that somebody from the East was their progenitor. Hey, I’m black. I am Negroid, so there’s no way somebody from the East could have been my ancestor. O.K.? It’s all a myth. And then that creates another myth, that Hausa is just a language. But it’s a language that people speak. They have particular codes. They have dress, they have food, they have everything. So how could they just be a language? But because of the fact that the Hausa language has moved into so many areas, and it has absorbed words and vocabularies from other languages, people tend to see it as a construct. But it is not. Long before they met any other group of people, they had existence, they had kingdoms ruled by kings and queens and things like that.
So there are Hausa people who occupy what you could call northern Nigeria now. Then, in about 1250 or so, migration of Muslim clerics started from Mali, when the Malian Empire was expanding. So you had merchant clerics, as many as 50 in a group, and they were evangelists, converting people wherever they go, and establishing Islam. And gradually it all filtered down to the Hausa people, who accepted Islam in a very quiet manner, because it just was like something that they could accept. But even then, there was a sort of clash Before the clerics came, there were certain religious rituals that were based on, if you like, worshiping spirits.
Yes. You should see a place in Kano called Dala Hill. That is where they had a small sort of temple where they worshiped the spirits. But the ruling house in Kano did not like that. Not because they were Muslims themselves, because they were not Muslims, but because they felt that power was probably being divided between the priests and the rulers. So there was always a battle between the two.
It’s the classic church–state struggle.
Exactly. So when Islam came, it provided a credible alternative to that religion, and so the rulers in Kano accepted Islam very quickly. And that gave them a stronger basis to fight those that were not following Islam, particularly those who are following the traditional, ritual religion. Those Hausa who refused to become Muslims, who refused to accept Islam, retained their traditional beliefs, and their whole Maguzawa.
That’s right. That’s what they are called. They refused to become Muslims, and right from that 14th century up to now, we have a lot of Maguzawa and actually, one of them, a young girl, was a rapper. She’s a fantastic rapper. Hassan will get you more details.
Kano from the air
O.K., that is excellent. When we get to the 20th century, and the British come, and they adopt a more hands-off attitude towards the North than the South.
That’s right. The reason they had that attitude is that the North already had an organized structure, in religion, scholarship, leadership. Because remember, right from 1000 A.D., up to the coming of the British in 1900 or so, they had almost 900 years of scholarship. From all our historical accounts, such sophisticated structures did not exist down south. So the British decided to prevent Christian missionaries from coming up to the north, because if they come up to the north to evangelize, the northerners will resist, and the British don’t want revolution and fights. They are trying to exploit whatever they could. And they couldn’t be bothered to set up an army just simply to get rid of all these fights and such between Christians and Muslims.
So they did not try to convert northerners to Christianity. That’s important.
Absolutely. In fact the colonial conquerors of northern Nigeria were not a military force in the beginning. They were a commercial force. They needed cotton and there is a lot of cotton here. They needed rubber. They needed leather. This was an advanced market where they could get all these raw materials and take them up to Britain and into production. So they didn’t want to rock the boat.
You know, when the British came to the north, they found over 23,000 people attending schools. These were Islamic schools, Koranic schools. We had professors in Islamic theology and things like that. But nobody could write A-B-C-D. Because nobody knows. Then in 1910 the British established Western schools so they could get local clerks that they could work with.
In the south, missionaries were able to establish schools in the early 19th century. So before you know it, you have people going to the university and getting degrees, whereas in the north, you don’t even have a person who has been to high school until 1910. And even then people didn’t like it. That school was just to educate a small force of people that would allow them to communicate and do business. They were trying to create an Anglicized elite, not to educate everybody.
That’s right. It was not meant to be a mass-educating thing. But you see, what they wanted to do, was if they educated the elites, if they educated people from the ruling houses, then those people from the ruling houses will now serve as a springboard for mass education.
People didn’t like it, you say.
No. I remember vividly, when you put on your uniform and go on to school, kids who don’t go to school would be following you, and singing a song: “When we go to heaven, there are those who will go to hell, and those who will go to hell are those who are going to school.” It’s just as simple as that. Simply because you go to white man’s school and you learn white man’s education, you are going to hell.
Ironically enough, the word Boko meant “false” or “fake.” Boko Haram doesn’t mean education is prohibited. It just means that this education, which is false, is haram. It’s is prohibited. It’s fake. The real education is Islamic education. The idea of boko being haram is nothing new. It has been there for a long time.
Kano’s grand mosque
So what was it like for you as a young person going to a Western school?
Luckily for me, my father was educated. So because I got inspiration from my father, I didn’t care what other people were saying. If it was good enough for my father, it was good enough for me. I was even the librarian, surrounded by books. And ironically, those kids who were singing the songs are all old now, and we are the ones helping them, giving the money. They will come to us and say come, “I don’t know how to feed my family today. I don’t have money.” But at the time, there was no psychological effect on me. Thanks to James Brown. Because I was listening to him all the time.
Brother James. The savior.
Yeah, really. I was listening to him all the time on the radio.
Let’s talk about Hausa tradition, especially music and drama. Start with music.
Well, the Hausa traditional music is acoustic music, of course, with no guitars, no piano, no trumpets. Well, they have their local trumpet, algaita. But at the moment, there is a massive decline in Hausa traditional music, is because of the perception of the musician in Hausa society.
There is a paper by a guy called M. G. Smith. Check him out on the Internet, and he will tell you the division of Hausa society, that there is a first-class, which includes all the Emirs. There is a middle class, which includes big farmers, merchants and things like that, and then there is a low class, which includes musicians. Another reason why musicians are in that low class, is that musicians in Hausa society are seen as marukan, meaning beggars or mendicants. So your prestige in the society is always low. The vast majority of Hausa traditional musicians sing for well-paying clients, sometimes notorious and infamous people. Nowadays, when the people die, there are no replacements. The younger musicians don’t want to do the same thing.
Professor Adamu, consulting in his office
But wasn’t that always true, even in the past? What changed so that young people now don’t want to follow that route?
I think there was a reawakening triggered by the Iranian revolution in 1979. That sent shockwaves throughout the Islamic world, so it led to some kind of assertion of a new identity reaffirming Islamicity. Suddenly people woke up and said, “It doesn’t really make sense for me to buy an album of a musician who is just simply praising another person. If you have to praise someone, praise God.” So then the old musicians themselves started granting interviews where they said they would not support their children taking after them. They want their children to go to school.
I have always found this ironic. This is an older musician that everybody likes. Everybody wants him. Everybody buys records and albums and songs. And yet, when his son says wants to marry your daughter, you say, “Oh no, there’s no way I could allow that.” And this drama occurs over and over and over again.
Right through nanaye and hip-hop and all these styles of music we have today?
What about the presentation of traditional music? What was it? One singer and a drum or a lute or violin?
Basically, they have two types of formation. There is a kind where there is only the lead singer, who sits and just sings, and he has a chorus of about 12 people, and drums. He doesn’t play any instrument. Maman Shata was one.
Yes, everyone mentions Shata. Tell us about him.
Shata was the most famous of all, with thousands and thousands of songs. “Sania Aliu Dendo,” “Dan Kwairu.” I mean there are a whole bunch of them. And then you have another kind of group where the lead singer plays an instrument, the kukuma. It’s like a fiddle. Before the disco came along, they were in clubs doing this thing. And then they had a few drummers and the gurumi, another plucked string instrument played with a plectrum. And then there is kontigi, another stringed instrument.
Is there anyone in Kano who plays this kind of music?
Of course there is. Nasiru Garba Supa plays kukuma brilliantly. He has just released an album which I executive produced.
Nasiru Garba Supa playing the kukuma and singing.
O.K., let’s get the background on the film industry. I understand it starts with live drama performances.
In the emir’s palace, there was a long drama tradition. People in the palace dramatized events in front of the emir as a way of telling him what is going on. It’s like you can’t come to the emir and say, “You! You know what’s happening in your place? There is a problem.” You can’t do that. So what they do is, in the night they stage a drama, and it is through the drama that they communicate to him things that are happening, that are good, that are bad. And then he takes notice.
So right in the emir’s palace there has always been this encouragement of drama tradition, and then young people in the schools were also doing drama, and then the clubs started being formed outside. This place, this building, is occupied by two of us. We are paying the rent. But the guy upstairs started also writing for drama clubs. And eventually, when the video camera became available, then they started transferring their scripts into the video thing, and that’s how the whole thing started.
I know the early films were influenced by Indian films. How did Hausa people here in Kano start seeing those films?
Well, the initial Indian films that came were distributed by the Arabs, Lebanese Arab merchants. They were screening American and British and Italian films to the British officers. The locals were sneaking in once in a while to the cinema to see that. But after independence in 1960, the Lebanese decided to introduce Indian films in the local theaters. They screened the film called Genghis Khan. Initially, they tried to show films from the Arab world. People didn’t like that.
Like Egyptian films?
Egyptian films, Lebanese films. I think those films at the time were too intellectual. They were message films, and they were just boring. But then the Indian films came along with the spectacular song and dance routines. That caught people’s imagination. They liked what they saw on the screen. Indian men dressed like Hausa men with a long flowing dresses. The Indian woman had their sari, the wrap which is similar to what we have. They are shy. They have a lot of bangles in their hands. So there was an instant connect.
Now compare that to an Arnold Schwarzenegger film. There is just simply no connection. They don’t see any way they can understand it, except for maybe some of the younger elements who are much more Westernized. But in the’60s, the whole focus is on cultural resonance. And the Indian films provide that perfect cultural resonance.
Kano film posters
Is part of that resonance also the tension between romantic story lines, but also restrictions on whether men and women can touch, dance, kiss, whatever?
Yeah, people don’t touch each other. They don’t kiss. They don’t do anything. And the women in Indian films are shy, demure, you know, they flash their eyes. They don’t talk back. That typical, macho, patriarchal image of a woman was reflected in the Bollywood films. And then the television stations started showing them as late-night movies, and that ingrained them in the consciousness of younger people. Because the act of going to a cinema was seen as immoral, men and women mix and all that. But when the Lebanese started leasing out Indian films to TV stations so they could show them on television, it becomes very easy now for people to see the films at home.
And I understand that that made women the majority of the audience. They couldn’t go to the movies theater, but they could sit home and watch.
That’s right. And the stories are all about emotion, love triangles. He loves one person, and another girl loves him. He doesn’t know what to do. He’s conflicted. You get a lot of song and dance. And then eventually, they sort themselves out.
So that was it, up to the point when Amitabh Bachchan became the Indian film hero. He created the conception of angry young man. His films were more or less like American gangster films. A lot of shooting. A lot of spectacular stunts and stuff like that. And he had always this frowning face, looking stern, like a real dude.
And Amitabh became the instant model for Hausa films. So that is why there are films now following the Amitabh model. You know, I have over 120 Indian films that were more or less translated into our language, remade as Hausa films. Then as the Indian films evolved into what I call metrosexuality, the Hausa films also moved along and became metrosexual. That’s what this thing is all about, imperialism from below. Media counter flows, and the emergence of Hausa metrosexual video culture—with the chest bare, groomed. Gucci, Bulgari. That kind of thing. I don’t know. I’ve got my little belly and I love it. So they got all these pecs and … what do they call it?
Yes. Six pack. That’s metrosexual. You want to show your six pack.
I haven’t seen a lot of that around Kano.
Well if you do that, you will be arrested by the hisbah police. Even the haircut. You know the footballers now have some crazy punk haircut and things like that. Well, if the hisbah police see any young men with that haircut, they will take them to a local hair salon and scrape it off. Your hair has to be normal.
Professor Adamu and Banning (photo by Musty)
So what does the Hausa man who wants to be metrosexual do? He has to leave, right?
You might. But then you can hang out places where you know you can’t get arrested, like in Sabon Gari. That is a settler zone for people who are not necessarily Muslim. Not from this area. When the British conquered northern Nigeria, they had to import people from southern Nigeria who were educated. But the Emir of Kano said, “I don’t want non-Muslims to come inside the city wall.” If you notice, there is a city wall. It is crumbling now, but there was a city wall at that time that encircled the entire city, and there were about seven gates that were locked at night. So the British created an encampment, outside the city wall for these guys. And the Emir said, “I don’t care what happens there. This is not my territory.”
But now, the metropolis has grown up, but that area continued to grow up too, and to attract people from other parts of Nigeria and Africa. Sabon Gari or “new town.” That’s where the action is. You want alcohol? That’s where you get it. You want girls? That’s where you get it. You want boys? That’s where you get them. So people from the city sometimes sneak out go there and engage in the pleasures of Sabon Gari, and then come back.
Sabon Gari has always been a place where you can let your hair down. The hisbah police used to go there and conduct raids once in a while. They would seize alcohol, smash the bottles and things like that. So in the morning, you get a lot of drunken rats, mice and cockroaches running around drunk all over.
Films/CDs on sale
When did Kannywood, the Hausa film industry proper, first start?
It starts about 1980, ’81 or so, and it started with a camera. The drama clubs didn’t have access to technology. But someone went on pilgrimage to Mecca and came back with a camera. Then the drama club started borrowing the camera, or hiring the camera, to record some of their activities. But then, the technology opened up. More cameras started being imported, and people are buying them. So they now started moving their productions from just the stage to the screen.
So they started to dismantle the drama clubs, and everybody creates his own film production company. “Oh, I’m XYZ Production Company,” and he’s executive producer, producer, writer, choreographer, cameraman, everything. That’s how they started. But eventually, they started forming real companies with a corporate structure, and this went on for the whole of the ’80s. Actually, up to 1999, almost 20 years. That was the golden age.
But in October 1999, a company down here released a trailer for a film that kick-started the new Kannywood. That film was called Sangaya. It was brilliantly choreographed. Nice catchy songs. Nobody actually remembers the story. But the focus was on the choreography, the singing and so on. Up to that point, the singing and dancing was very tame. But when they did this in a very excellently choreographed way, it showed the world, yes, it can be done.
Sha’aibu Lilisko was one of the persons who was showing people how to do the dancing, and then he was preparing the film. So from 1999, 2000, all the way up to 2007: singing, dancing. I have to be more Indian than Indian. That was the mentality of the culture then.
And the music in those films was called nanaye.
Yes. Nanaye is a music that is made exclusively to be played in a film. No other context. Just a film. That’s the evolution. But it didn’t become a word, a living word, until after Sangaya. Before that, we didn’t have any name for the music. But after the popularity of Sangaya, a producer called it nanaye, and it became a label for any music that has been composed exclusively for the film industry.
Why did they pick up that word? What was its origin?
Because that is the way the girls sing in a playground. Little girls. That is their chorus. So anything that is girlish, that is focused on singing and dancing in a chorus is called nanaye. It’s actually derogatory, because it’s not seen as an art form. Nanaye is a word that is very common in Hausa language, but it is always associated with female, children’s entertainment. It’s gender focused. It’s all about the female, all the love songs center on the female. So nanaye becomes an apt description of that kind of music.
Most of the nanaye singers we have met are men. But I assume that there are a lot of female nanaye singers.
There have to be. There have to be male and female. Call and response. A male and a female. Nothing says the two of them are related. They just meet in the studio. They read the song, and then they record it, and then they part and they are given their money by the producer.
Maryam Sangandali, nanaye singer
I understand that nowadays, nanaye musicians make music for the market, not only for films.
Yes, the term nanaye has come to be applied to any song, whether made for film or not, in which a male and a female sing. So long as it has two voices, male and female, then it becomes a nanaye. And they hate it.
Who hates it?
The musicians. Because they think it’s derogatory. They think it’s restricting themselves to a film. And that is why I said up to 2007. 2007 there was a crackdown on the film industry. And it affected the nanaye singers, and they could not continue singing at all. There was a censorship ban. Then they realized that it was the film that was banned, but not the singing. So I can now continue singing without the film. They started creating their own new nanaye, which I call “post nanaye”—songs that have been composed, but not for any particular film. But up to 2007, if you produced a song and took it to the market, the first thing the marketer would ask is, “Which film is this?”
One singer told us that what they didn’t like about being in the films is that they’re kind of lost. An actor is miming their song.
That’s right. They’re in the background. They are hidden. But since 2007, this post nanaye, they now can be seen. They make music videos, which are not films, but which feature them.
Ahmad M. Sadiq in the studio
We watched the producer Ahmad M. Sadiq make a song. Very quickly. It took no time at all.
That’s what they do. It’s very spontaneous. They don’t write the lyrics. In fact, some of them are very proud of the fact that they don’t write any lyrics. They just go there and improvise into the mic in the word start flowing. And that is why they cannot repeat the same thing on stage, because they can’t. These guys will tell you they have 3,000 songs.
Yes. Aboubacar Sani told us he’s made 4000.
In fact there was a guy who said he had 30,000 songs. Now AC/DC is a group that I really love, and I know that the total number of albums that AC/DC made right from the start all away up to the one they kicked out recently, are not more than 20 or 30. And what about the Rolling Stones? These are guys whose hair is grayer than yours. And yet, yet, you can count the songs. They’re not all that many. But here, they have 3,000 songs, because of that spontaneity that they talk about. They just go there and say, “Give me a tune.” He sings, then she sings, and right away, you’ve got a hit tune, a slick, well-produced song. Then they go with the CD and to give it to the DJs, and the music starts, and then they just mime. And that’s what they call live performance.
One of the other problems with producing the music live is that most of the vocals and the songs have been processed using Auto-Tune. It gives them that warbling, shimmering sound, and you can’t easily do that live either. O.K., Let’s switch to Hausa technopop. You say it started in 2003. Tell us about it.
Hausa technopop is a musical form that uses synthesizers in a much more structured r&b beat, using more disco-like beat. It is all generated by a synthesizer. Whereas in nanaye, the beat is to follow the male and female voices. The music follows the lyrics. But in technopop, separate them. So you have the music standing on its own, with its own line, and then the musician simply lays the track. And there’s not much variation. So that’s why I call it technopop. Synthesizer. Beat oriented. Independent. House oriented. Disco oriented. And the subject matter may or may not be about love, but mainly it’s not about love.
Billy O is the guy who popularized that form of musical delivery. And he meandered into rap. Because inside his performances of technopop, he introduced rap. So Billy O is seen as the first Hausa rapper. But he was not the first person to release a rap CD. The first person to release a rap CD was Abdoulaye Imayti. He released the first rap CD, but it was Billy O who popularized the concept of rap music. Abdoulaye Imayti cut it on a CD, the first-ever rap CD in Kano.
Billy O taking a break from work at Dala FM
Around 2008 I would say.
O.K., but just before that, there was this crackdown in 2007. What was that about?
2007 was when one of the filmmakers, Adam Zanbo, decided to release a music video called “Bahaushiya,” That’s the “Hausa Girl.” And there was a lot of dancing, and then the navel was shown, and Adam Zango was arrested. He was locked up in jail for three months. But he was released before the three months were over, and when he was released, he ran away from Kano. And then he released a song in which he abused the governor of Kano for incarcerating him. And that’s when the rapper Hassan Mohamad and his colleague released a counter-song called “Bingo.” “Bingo” is a common name for a dog, especially a black dog. So it’s like Led Zeppelin’s “Black Dog.” And so there was this war between Adam Zango and Hassan and his colleagues.
So 2007 actually marked the emergence of rap. Because when Hassan and his colleague did “Bingo,” then other people started coming in and other defending the government for attacking other people. Then we said, “Look, rap is about expressing your own opinion. It is not about abusing somebody. We don’t have these East Coast-West Coast wars. It doesn’t make sense. If you want to rap about schools and education and life, or about money, about economics, go right ahead. But don’t diss anybody, unless they did something to you.”
From what I understand, when you look at the bigger Nigerian scene, there wasn’t a whole lot of hip-hop and rap then. I have heard rappers in Lagos say that the real hip-hop started here in the North.
There is no connection between what we are doing up north, and what they are doing down south. Nobody bothered to create that connection. There are some rappers from the north who moved on to Lagos and establish themselves because the studios were available there. In fact the person who produced Abdoulaye Imayti’s album left here because of Shariah and all that. He was a Christian. And he moved to Lagos. So you may be right. I don’t know that much about the development of rap and hip-hop. But I can tell you 2Face and these artists now, we don’t consider them rappers. Because rap is made up of three components. There is the beat. There is the flow. And there is the message. These three things are necessary for rap, even in New York. The beat has to be a rap beat. The flow has to be consistent, and then the message has to be about a social issue. This is what these kids are focusing on. And now you have girls, young girls who are moving it around. We have about three of them. So we have girls who are now moving into rap, Muslim girls who produce rap. And heavy rap.
So let’s talk about the social environment in which this is happening. I know that artists have a hard time doing concerts because they can get closed down by the religious police, the hisbah. But at the same time, it feels like hip-hop is in the process of gaining more mainstram acceptance.
I wouldn’t say it’s in the process of getting accepted. I would still say that there are a lot of people who don’t accept it up north, here in Kano, because they always associated, which is ironic, with American influences. The typical thing is, you are trying to imitate Americans. Why would you do that? Americans are bad. Because the rap that we do here is gangster rap. Tupac, Biggy Small kind of rap so people don’t see that as good. So how do they spread it? WhatsApp, Bluetooth, they just keep spreading around among themselves. And that is why they are true artists. Because are not doing it to make money.
Hausa hip-hop graffiti at Arewa 24 television
You respect them, and I get the feeling they also respect you. You have a very unusual relationship with these artists.
I am the only academician today in rap. The other academicians do not think it is worthwhile studying. They only focus attention on nanaye, and even then, it is only because I did a lot of work on nanaye. And then I felt that I had reached a certain point where I’m not going to really go further. Then rap started emerging, and fortunately, I like rap. I lived in San Francisco, U.C. Berkeley as a Fullbrighter. And I’ve seen rap around, and I thought this is cool. Right now we have a little boy called Little Emile, just 12 years old. He’s a rapper, and he’s doing a very good job. So for me, rap is a reflection of urban dynamism here in Kano.
And we discovered that there is a relationship between the level of education and the preference and music. The less educated a person is, the more traditional music they like, and the more nanaye they like. The more educated a person is, the more hip-hop he likes. Because hip-hop is much more transglobal.
Who are some of your favorite Hausa hip-hop artists?
Oh, many of them. Mic Flamer. Dr Pure. Little Emile. And then there’s a guy who’s unusual, IQ. He sings only in English. Absolutely amazing. There are other rappers who try to sing in English, but the English is always coming out distorted, because they are trying to speak like Americans. They want to talk like Ice Cube or something like that. But the ones we prefer are the ones who sing only in Hausa language. They communicate their messages well.
Of course, they have limits on what they can say, in terms of sexuality, and probably also criticism of government and officials and things like that. One of the things I’ve noticed is that obviously compared to the musical world that we know, people here have to operate within some pretty strict guidelines in terms of what they can sing about and say.
But I don’t get the feeling from my limited conversation so far, people are not generally oppressed by that. They accept the fact that they have to create within these limitations. I don’t feel like they are really rebelling against that.
No, because there is self-censorship, moral self-censorship. As an artist, I shouldn’t do anything that would destroy my society. All Muslims have that instinctive, self-regulatory thing. I have to do something within Islam. I wouldn’t do anything that would distort my image, or destroy religion, and things like that. So it’s an inbuilt, self-censorship. And that is why they don’t want to rebel. Nobody’s going to come out and say, “We don’t like the hisbah.” O.K.? Because the hisbah is integral to the Koran. They are established by the Koran, not by any individual. If you rebel against hisbah, then you are rebelling against the Koran. And if you do that, then you are not in the religion. We don’t have any problems, and we don’t feel oppressed. Because that is how we are all wired. We are wired to accept it, and we have accepted it.
Dr. Pure (Saif Ibrahim) on air on Rahama Radio
Sean Barlow: What about artists who sing politics, questioning the balance of power, corruption, serious stuff, not about Islam, but about politics and corruption?
They do. Some of them. But everybody is scared. And when I say scared, I mean you can’t just simply come up and say the government is doing bad and all that. You might be seen as subversive. But some do. One of the songs that I really loved is called “Change” by Lil Tea. That was released before the elections that brought the current government to power. And it was a really blistering attack on the previous government. Then after that government was toppled by election and a new government came in, he released a remix in which he said, “Now things are better.”
Do you think this movement of hip-hop is going to eventually emerge more into the mainstream, with young people coming up who love it? Or will it always stay at the edges, underground?
It’s going to stay underground. I don’t think it’s going to go beyond what it is now. The reason, first of all, for people to know you, you have to put on concerts and things like that. We don’t have those kinds of opportunities here at all. So if you don’t have a situation where you can go to a club or to a concert venue and we don’t have concert venues, your craft is not going to survive.
That’s number one. Number two. We don’t have record companies that will record these people. We tried to do that. We got some money from someone who’s a Nigerian Canadian. I invited about 10 hip-hop artists to come and recorded a demo so that we could release it so we can get some money. Then they started telling me their individual issues. They had problems, and therefore they need the money, and that was the end of that project.
Thirdly, public acceptance of hip-hop is not really at a level that we would’ve loved to see. People still see it as American, very, very Americanized, and that is not helped by the fact that some of the hip-hop musicians try to sing with a fake, exaggerated American accent, but when they do that, you can’t even hear the words. Our rappers here who try to rap in English, you don’t understand what they are saying. So people just tune out.
That’s why a group like K-Arrows wrote a diss song where they dissed people who were singing in English. So we have these diss wars. “Why are you trying to speak a language that’s not yours? Nobody even understands you’re saying. Hey, maybe you are not even Hausa, but you’re claiming to be Hausa.” That’s the worst thing you can tell to a person here, that you are not really Hausa, that you are Yoruba or something else. That is the ultimate insult. Because you are denying his identity.
Tagwayan Asali (Hausa hip-hop duo) and friends
So you don’t think rappers will go mainstream, but still you encourage them.
I encourage them. I like them. I listen to them, and when I criticize them, it is because I want global best practices in what they are doing. If I can listen to Shadia Mansur in Kano, why can’t I listen to K-Boys in Cairo? I don’t understand what she’s saying. They don’t understand what I’m saying, but there is a musical, universal message that connects us. That’s very important.
And you know, that 2007 incident with Adam Zango was good for him. He’s bigger now than ever. And it was good for the creative industries in Kano. Really. The banning has forced other creativities to come out. And it elevated those that were unknown, like ALA. ALA was already a well-respected singer, but he couldn’t find any outlet, because he was overshadowed by all the nanaye singers. When the nanaye singers stopped singing, that’s when he shot up. So I think that was cool. I’m glad the kids seem to like what I was doing. I’m really happy. I will continue helping them out.
Sean: Can you give us a little primer for our listeners on Shariah law and how it came here, and how it affects this story?
Well, Shariah law has always been there since about the 13th century. It’s not new. When you say Shariah law, you’re talking about living according to the dictates of Islam. They’ve always been applying Shariah law since about 1250 when Islam came to northern Nigeria. But it was reactivated in 1999 by politicians. That’s why a lot of people see it as political Islam. But even with, or without it, people live according to Shariah. Marriage was done according to Shariah. Divorce according to Shariah. All other forms of social interactivity according to Shariah. But it became political because now they’re suddenly saying that they are going to use Shariah as a form of judgment in legal cases. And we launched it. As far as the creative industries were concerned, so long as you can conform to the traditional Muslim norms and values, then Shariah will have nothing to do with you.
You should speak with the head of hisbah. He’s liberal, really. Liberal. But now he is the enforcer who has to make sure that the society is clean. So, Shariah law is Shariah law. Creative industries are creative industries. There is no mix. There is no clash, except when the creative industries go out of their boundaries. That is when you have the clash. And so far, except for the cases like in 2007, they have been cleaning up their act.
Now if you want to do something really naughty, let your hair down and things like that, then you get out of the Shariah zone. You can go to Kaduna, about 250 km away. Or you can go to Lagos. And there, you can even appear naked and nobody cares. But so long as you’re in Kano, there’s a certain cleanness that has to be maintained. And we’re kind of comfortable with that.
Professor Adamu outside his office
For more photos of Kano, 2017, see our Kano Photo Essay.
Carmen McCain is an assistant professor of English at Westmont College. Her research focus is on Hausa-language literature, film and popular culture. Hausa is a language spoken by over 50 million people across West Africa. Most native speakers are in northern Nigeria and Niger, but there are also Hausa-speaking communities in Benin, Togo, Ghana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Gabon, the Sudan and elsewhere. It is the most widely spoken language in Africa, after Arabic and Swahili. Carmen was a driving force behind our program “Hip Deep in Northern Nigeria.” She introduced us to Professor Abdallah Adamu and other invaluable sources and helpers. Before the Afropop team left for Nigeria in January 2017, Banning Eyre interviewed Carmen. Here’s an edited version of their conversation, focusing on the Kannywood film industry and the scandals that have challenged its progress in the 21st century.
Banning Eyre: Thanks for all the help, Carmen, and for speaking with me. To start, you partially grew up in Nigeria, didn’t you?
Carmen McCain: I moved to Nigeria as a child with my family in 1988, when my dad began teaching at a university in Port Harcourt. We were in Port Harcourt for three years, and then moved to Jos, in Plateau State, in what we call the “middle belt.” I learned a little bit of Hausa as a teenager, simple greetings and market Hausa. So later, when I was in my Ph.D. program in what was then called the Department of African Languages and Literature at they University of Wisconsin, and I was required to become proficient in a Nigerian language, I went back to Hausa. At first I was planning to study Nigerian literature in English, but in 2005 when I went to Sokoto, Nigeria, in the northwest to study Hausa, my teacher had me reading Hausa literature and watching Hausa movies to learn the language. And I was blindsided.
I had grown up in Nigeria and had spent more time there right after college on a Fulbright, spending time with English-language writers who met with the Association of Nigerian Authors in Jos. But I had never realized that there was a flourishing tradition of Hausa literature and film in the North. So, I fell in love. In 2006, I went to Kano, the commercial capital of Nigeria, and an ancient stop on major trans-Saharan trade and pilgrimage routes, and this is where I first began to meet Hausa writers, filmmakers, and musicians. I returned in 2008 and spent five and a half more years in northern Nigeria, doing research and writing.
In this show, we’re going to tell a story about film and music in the time of Shariah law. But maybe you can give us a little history. What do we need to know about the Nigerian north in order to appreciate this story?
People have been writing in the region we known as Nigeria since the 11th century. The Kanem Borno Empire, in what is now Borno State, had contact with Islam from the ninth or 10th century, and Kano had contact with Islam at latest by the 14th century. So from this time there is a literary tradition that is both oral and written. You have popular song and also songs that were written down by Islamic scholars, such as the 16th century poet Dan Marina from Katsina, whose songs are apparently still being sung today. In the early 19th century, the Islamic reformer Usman Dan Fodiyo and his family, including four of his daughters, wrote and translated poetry between Arabic, Fulfulde and Hausa. Verse was written in Hausa often as a tool for teaching conquered people about Islam, and the verse structure helped people memorize and sing this poetry. So, there was a fluid overlap between the oral and written tradition. There also seems to have been a little bit of conflict between popular forms of music associated with the non-Islamic spirit possession traditions and Islam. Nana Asma’u, the daughter of Usman Dan Fodiyo, wrote a poem called “Prayer for Rain,” actually meant to be sung. Here’s part of it:
Let us return to the Path of the Sunna and be redeemed.
Respecting each other, banding together as colleagues.
Do not go where there is immoral drumming and chatter
For men and women mix together on these occasions.
The beating of drums in jihad is permissible
And so is drumming when communal work is being done
And the beating of drums in the heat of battle
And to announce the return home.
It is advisable to beat drums when traveling
Otherwise people stray and get lost.
But do not allow drumming at weddings to accompany wild dancing.
Let us live in the remembrance of the Hereafter….”
From 1809, after the jihad that started in 1804, northwestern Nigeria was ruled by the Sokoto Caliphate, established after Usman D’an Fodiyo’s jihad. This was the power structure in place when the British defeated Kano and Sokoto in 1903. The British then set up a system of indirect rule, ruling through the pre-existing emirates until Nigeria gained its independence from the British in 1960. So the nation of Nigeria that was founded by the British has always included within it multiple nations. In the 1970s, some northern Nigerians began pushing for the establishment of Shariah law in the north. The justice system introduced by the British was seen as a “Christian” system and is known for its corruption and delay. The call for Shariah was seen as a way to bring back a kind of justice that had existed in some parts of the north from the time of the Fodiyo jihad in 1804.
In 1999, the military government handed over to what we call the Third Republic, because it was the third period of democratic rule in Nigeria since independence. Shortly afterwards, the governor of Zamfara State, the northwestern state, next to Sokoto State, declared that the new constitution made it legal for the state to institute Shariah law. Nigeria’s constitution learned from the American constitution in giving states rights. So that is how individual states in northern Nigeria began declaring Shariah law. Theoretically, it was only supposed to be applicable to Muslims, not Christians, in those states, and those convicted under Shariah law do have the ability to appeal to the federal courts. There was kind of a populist demand for Shariah that began to sweep across northern Nigeria at that time. And the governor of Kano State at the time Rabi’u Musa Kwankwaso instituted it in Kano, many think somewhat reluctantly, in the year 2000.
Actor Mustafa “Musty,” Afropop’s number-one research assistant and inside man in Kano
How did the local film industry start in this region?
The local film industry grew up out of drama clubs. Some of these drama clubs had been around from the 1940s. In the 1980s about the same time other people in southern Nigeria, Ghana, and elsewhere were beginning to experiment with filming low-budget productions on VHS, Hausa artists were experimenting with capturing drama on VHS as well. These drama clubs also produced shows for state television, and they were so popular that some marketers sold copies of the TV performances dubbed on VHS in the market. During the 1980s, the then-military dictator Ibrahim Babangida had yielded to World Bank demands for structural adjustment programs, which killed Nigeria’s economy. State television was having a hard time paying artists for their work, so the Tumbin Giwa drama club decided to make their film and sell it directly in the market. So, the first successful independent commercial film production was Turmin Danya in 1990. That was followed by other popular films like Gimbiya Fatima, the first part of which was made in 1992, and films like In da So da Kauna, based on Ado Ahmad Gidan Dabino’s bestselling novel by the same name.
Ado Ahmad Gidan Dabino (Eyre 2017)
What were these films like, and what made them so popular? Along the way, maybe you can tell us the origin of the term Kannywood.
The films, like their southern cousins often called Nollywood, were popular because they showed recognizable places and customs and were made in the language everyone spoke. They were also quite popular among women, because cinemas, which had been around in northern Nigeria from the 1930s, were not seen as places where respectable women could go, but video players that could be hooked up to televisions at home gave women access to films. Before Hausa films became popular, Indian films had been very popular both in cinemas and on “home video,” so filmmakers themselves, especially the second generation of filmmakers in the 1990s, had grown up with Indian films constantly playing at home.
The films from the beginning have also had a lot of overlap with the popular literature being written in northern Nigeria from the 1980s on. Novelists were sometimes also actors, directors, and scriptwriters, and adaptations of novels were often made for film. Some of the more popular ones were In da So da Kauna, based on a novel about star-crossed lovers, a rich girl and a poor boy. This novel sold over 200,000 copies and was read out loud over the radio, so it also made for a very popular film. Other popular early films were adapted from Balaraba Ramat’s Sin Is A Puppy That Follows You Home, Bala Anas Babinlata’s Naira da Kwabo, down to more recent films based on the novels of Jamila Umar Tanko, Nazir Adam Salih, Fauziyya D. Sulaiman and others.
The term Kannywood was coined by Shehu Sanusi Daneji, a publisher of a Hausa entertainment magazine, Tauraruwa, the Stars. He was a fan of Hollywood, and in 1999 he created a gossip column in this magazine called “Kanywood.” This name was modeled after Hollywood. So, the name caught on from there. Interestingly, some Nigerian filmmakers think that Kannywood was modeled after the name Nollywood, which was bestowed on the southern Nigerian film industry by the New York Times in 2002, but the Hausa film industry had been called Kannywood for three years before this name came out.
Carmen McCain and Professor Abdalla Uba Adamu
Glad you cleared that up! Tell us about the relationship between film and music in Kannywood.
In early films like In da So da Kauna, there was singing, a teenage boy and girl, star-crossed lovers, singing love poems back and forth to each other. But in the late 1990s, Hausa filmmakers began to more closely imitate Indian film music. Films would usually have at least three or four songs and they sounded very similar to Indian music too, with the call and refrain between men and high-pitched women’s voices. As time went on, Hausa music began to have a distinctive sound, but it is still recognizably influenced by Indian film music. This Indian-inspired film music is called nanaye. In fact, this music completely changed the popular music scene in northern Nigeria. If you hear Hausa music on a radio now, it is most likely nanaye.
Tell us a little about the cities of Kano and Jos. We will visit Kano, so that will be our focus. But it would be great to hear about both cities and what distinguishes them.
Kano is an ancient trade city on the trans-Saharan trade route; the foundations of the current city walls were laid as early as the 11th century. It continues to be an important market city, and has the largest economy in the north. The development of the film industry, and the Hausa publishing industry, in Kano was particularly important because of Kano’s powerful market. It is a cosmopolitan city with a history that goes back at least 1,000 years. People were writing scholarship from the 14th century in Kano, and it was a stopover on the Hajj route from Timbuktu, so you have a long history of scholarship, writing and trade.
Jos is a city in the middle belt and, unlike majority Muslim Kano, is majority Christian. Jos is located on the Bauchi plateau in Nigeria, which because of its rocky terrain was never conquered by the Fulani jihadists in the early 1800s. However, when the British came along, they did place it under an emirate, and this has been a source of resentment for a long time. Many of the people who lived in Plateau converted to Christianity in part as resistance to this older Hausa-Fulani colonizing force. The Plateau is around 4,000 feet in elevation and has a temperate climate, so the British colonialists built rest homes and resorts in the city. Under colonialism, tin mining became a major part of the Jos economy, and this led to miners coming from all over the country, so Jos also became quite a cosmopolitan city with people from all over Nigeria. If you look now at many of the major musicians, actors and filmmakers in Nigeria, both in the southern Nollywood and the northern Kannywood, many of them have some kind of association with Jos.
The singer 2Face Idibia, the rapper M.I. and his brother Jesse Jagz, the duo P-Square, Ice Prince, Jeremiah Gyang, known all over Nigeria—they all grew up in Jos. The hot new filmmakers Kenneth Gyang, Abba Makama, Africa Ukoh, and others also grew up in Jos. In Kannywood, we have stars like Ali Nuhu, who went to the University of Jos, Abbas Sadiq and Zainab Idris, popular actress Nafisa Abdullahi and others who grew up in Jos. So, it was a meeting place between the north and south and a very creative place. Hausa filmmakers began making films in Jos in the early 1990s and it is one of the hubs of the Hausa film industry. Unfortunately, the ethnic and religious crises that began in force after 2001 made it more difficult to film in Jos. Actors did not want to come in from the outside because they were afraid of danger from Christian militias. But there is still a sizeable industry in Jos, and there are quite a few films made at the Jos Museum where there are replicas of the Kano emir’s palace and other architectural wonders.
The most recent conflict between the Jos-based industry and the Kano-based industry came in August 2016, when the Jos-based musician Classiq had Kannywood actress Rahama Sadau act in the music video of his song, “I Love You.” He raps in English and Hausa, code-switching between the two. In the music video, there is some mild handholding and hugging. Rahama was banned by the filmmaking body MOPPAN (Motion Pictures Practitioners of Nigeria) for acting with these displays of physical affection. The music and the video is exactly the sort of thing that is coming out of Jos, Christian and Muslim artists working together to produce sophisticated edgy productions. But the touching between a man and woman is seen as too “Western” and immodest by Kano standards. Only a few months ago, a film village, basically a studio sound stage, that the Buhari government promised to build in Kano was canceled because conservative clerics preached that the film village would corrupt vulnerable women and children. [Editor’s note: Many people we interviewed in Kano said this happened because clerics were thrown by the word “village.” They did not understand the nature of the project. Some hope and expect it will be revived.] The tension was high again between the filmmakers and certain gatekeepers, and MOPPAN warned all of its stakeholders to be careful. Rahama’s appearance in the video seemed to Kannywood leadership in Kano to be deliberate rebellion against this political purpose. But from my perspective, at least, as a Jos girl, she was just engaging with Jos-based media.
Talk about the introduction of Shariah law in the north and how it has affected film and music.
I mentioned a little of this previously. The call for Shariah was introduced by politicians as an issue to help them get the votes and then became a populist movement—I sometimes compare it to the evangelical movement in the U.S. and the idea that society would be a better place if we elect Christian politicians or impose laws based on Christian convictions. People believed that justice would be swifter and that society would be a better place if Shariah law was in place.
In 1999, the Zamfara State governor Sani Yerima—who later became notorious for marrying a 13- or 14-year old girl—instituted Shariah law in Zamfara State, and from that time there was a populist wave across the north with Shariah by popular demand. In 2000, Kano instituted Shariah law, and in December 2000, state government banned the “shooting, production, distribution and showing” of films in Kano state, saying that film “constitutes an incalculable damage and nuisance on the sacred teachings of the Shariah legal system” (Media Rights Agenda n.d.).
By this point there were thousands of people making films, so the leaders of the various film guilds and the umbrella association of MOPPAN wrote to the government and told them that if they could provide them with an alternate source of livelihood, they would leave their profession, but otherwise they needed to come to some kind of compromise. The compromise turned out to be a review board, which the filmmakers themselves proposed as a way to make sure they could keep making films but with some oversight that satisfied their harshest critics. This was the birth of the Kano State Censorship Board.
When I first started my research in Kano in 2006, I visited the board, and there was a group of people watching films to censor them. This would include the filmmaker, and other members of society. The censors board seemed rather mild when I observed them. In fact, I remember I watched a film with them, and there was this rather dramatic scene of a man smothering a woman with a pillow, and the censors were in good spirits and didn’t say anything about it. I was also given a sheet of prohibitions. Some of them are the same as the rules by the national film and video censors board, which prohibits any material that could cause interethnic tensions by defaming religion or culture, some are more Shariah specific:
Film producers should prevent:
1) Close dancing between a woman and a man.
2) A girl appearing in tight trousers or a short skirt in a film
3) Leaving hair uncovered [for a woman], unless the story indicates
4) Putting on tight clothes that reveals the figure of a woman
5) Insulting or lack of respect for elders
6) Insulting or demeaning another religion or culture
7) Using children for scenes that are not appropriate for them
8) Using rituals or magic in films in inappropriate ways
9) Showing nudity, sex or vulgar actions
10) Ridiculing a specific person or a people or going against Islamic law
In 2003, Ibrahim Shekarau won an election on the promise to more fully institute Shariah law in Kano, as the previous governor Rabi’u Musa Kwankwaso was seen as being rather half-hearted about it. Shekarau won and formalized the hisbah, a kind of Shariah vigilante group, and an organization called A Daidaita Sahu, the Societal Reorientation Directorate. This directorate erected signs around Kano with verses from the Koran and also published didactic novellas in Hausa to replace what was seen as the more worldly novels being read by girls. In fact, in one case, a girls’ school called the girls to an assembly, the staff went through and found several hundred popular novels. The directorate sponsored a book burning with the fodder from these girls’ books and replaced the books with the didactic novels the directorate had sponsored.
In 2007, rumors went around that a polygamous lesbian wedding had taken place in an open-air theater where galas often took place. Galas were events where actors would mime to popular film music and attracted a lot of film fans. But with rumors about the lesbian wedding, the open-air theater was razed. From there, a scandal took place that rocked the industry. A private phone video taken by an actress’ boyfriend while they were having sex was leaked and became a hot-selling commodity in Kano’s download market. Shocked conservatives called for a ban on the film industry, and the Kano State censors board shut down the industry for the good part of a year.
So, I returned to Kano in 2008, and the industry I had seen in 2006 had completely changed. In 2006, I would see filmmakers everywhere on the side of the road cheerfully dancing and miming to music from boom boxes for the films. Now, there were almost no films being made in Kano. Kano-based filmmakers had begun traveling out of state to make films and would come back to edit the films in Kano studios. But in order to sell the films, they had to access the Kano market, and to access the Kano market, they had to pass their films through the Kano State Censorship Board. If a film that had not passed through the board was found in Kano, it was labeled “cocaine,” and marketers and filmmakers could be arrested.
Three of the highest-profile cases happened because uncensored films were found in the market. The first was the arrest of the actor and musician Adam Zango, who had released a music video album Bahaushiya (Hausa Girl) in Lagos. It featured some dancing girls who briefly exposed their navals in some scenes, and the overall album depicted Hausa girls as materialistic and unfaithful. Adam Zango was arrested and imprisoned for two months—the ostensible reason being because he had not censored the album with the censorship board. But articles about his arrest also mentioned the offensiveness of the album and the shameful way it portrayed Hausa society.
Secondly, two of the most famous comedians, Rabilu Musa Dan Lasan known as Dan Ibro, and his colleague Lawal Kaura, were arrested. They were arrested ostensibly for being producers (they denied it) of a film that had not been censored. But it turned out to be a pirated music video album of greatest comedy hit songs. Rumor had it that the governor had it out for Dan Ibro because of a comedic song where he had mocked the kind of cloth that the governor wore. It became such a popular song that apparently children mocked the governor with the song when he went to events and it made it difficult for cloth merchants to sell that cloth. They were also imprisoned for two months
Finally, one of the most respected elders of the film industry, Hamisu Lamido Iyan-Tama, who had previously been awarded prizes from the Hausa film industry for his family-friendly films promoting Hausa culture, was arrested over a film, a Hausa take on West Side Story that had been sponsored by the U.S. embassy to promote peace in Nigeria. The claim was that the film had been found uncensored in a Kano market, even though Iyan-Tama, trying to reduce the headache of dealing with the board, had gone on the radio saying that the film was not for sale in Kano. He spent several years battling the board in court and three months in prison.
Eventually, this crisis petered out with a change in political power, and when the head censor, who had traveled around demonizing filmmakers, was caught in an alleged sex scandal of his own. However, there continue to be tensions between the censorship board and the leaders of the Kano-based industry who want to appease conservative critics, and edgier filmmakers and musicians, as we see in the case of Classiq and Rahama Sadau.
Well, we will soon see what the situation is like now in Kano. But what’s your sense? Have things come back since 2011?
Yeah. I left shortly after Kwankwaso came in. Since then it’s been almost seven years and there have been a lot of changes. When the new government came in, he actually put Dan Ibro on the censors board. He has since died, unfortunately. But there are people, filmmakers, who are now on the board, and who still have problems with the Hausa film industry. So the kind of crisis between gatekeepers and the filmmakers has not stopped. I mentioned that the Kano film village was not built by the government because of all these critiques of clerics and social critics, and the crisis where the actress was banned. Other actresses have been banned too. So there’s often scapegoating of women for what people see as the corruption of the filmmaking industry. So these things are still going on.
Some of the crisis now is that there is so much piracy. It’s hard for people to make money, because of all the pirates. So the first thing on people’s minds is not necessarily the censorship board anymore, but actually the ability to continue the film industry in an age where there’s so much satellite television. So there are stations like Africa Magic and Arewa 24 and other stations that have bought up a lot of copies of Hausa films. So now a lot of people watch things on television, kind of going back to the way it was formed in the 1980s out of television. It has kind of returned to television.
And so it is difficult for filmmakers to sell videos and make money anymore. Because as soon as they release a film, within a day or so, the pirates have it, and they sell far more than the producers and marketers selling legal copies. So I would say that, when I talk to people, that is the main concern. And that would be something interesting for you to explore.
We will certainly do that. Thank you!
MODERN ENGLISH DECORATION - 2017
Δυστυχώς, έπεσε πάνω στο Σαμαρά, στους παπάδες κ.λπ. και το φοβήθηκε.
Ούτε αυτό εν τέλει.
συλλογίζομαι το θάνατο.
Τις επιδημίες, την πείνα,
τη βία, την τρομοκρατία, τον πόλεμο,
το τέλος του κόσμου.
να μη σκέφτομαι άλλα.
Title: Ennanga Vision
Bitrate: 320 Kbps
Size: 112.84 MB
01. Ennanga Vision – New Sunshine (3:30)
02. Ennanga Vision – Otim’s War (4:26)
03. Ennanga Vision – Like a Football (2:47)
04. Ennanga Vision – Essembi (Money) (2:10)
05. Ennanga Vision – Killing Ghosts (4:45)
06. Ennanga Vision – Happy Birthday Wonder (Acholi) (6:21)
07. Ennanga Vision – Abbana Kange (Children of My Father) (3:34)
08. Ennanga Vision – All This Blue (5:02)
09. Ennanga Vision – Amadinda Eyeball (3:17)
10. Ennanga Vision – Kampala Auto Chase (4:35)
11. Ennanga Vision – Endongo Moogs (2:27)
12. Ennanga Vision – Silimu (Aids) (1:50)
13. Ennanga Vision – Jaja (Grandmother) (3:37)
Download Ennanga Vision-Ennanga Vision-(SNDWD105)-WEB-2017-MOHAWK
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Omar Souleyman / To Syria, With Love Жанр : World,Ethnic Носитель : WEB Год издания : 2017 Издатель (лейбл) : Mad Decent Номер по каталогу : MAD335 Аудиокодек : FLAC (*.flac) Тип рипа : tracks Битрейт аудио : lossless Продолжительность : 44:17 Источник (релизер) : boomkat Наличие сканов в содержимом раздачи : нет Треклист : 01.
320 kbps | 72 MB | LINKS
01. Sous le sable
03. Fontaine de lait
05. Les loups
06. Je ne mâche pas mes mots
08. Nuit debout
10. Fille à papa
320 kbps | 267 MB | LINKS
Bob Marley & the Wailers’ classic Exodus album, the ninth studio album of the band, was released on June 3, 1977, featuring a new backing band including brothers Carlton and Aston ‘Family Man’ Barrett on drums and bass, Tyrone Downie on keyboards, Alvin ‘Seeco’ Patterson on percussion, and the I Threes, Judy Mowatt, Marcia Griffiths and Rita Marley on backing vocals, and newest member Julian ‘Junior Marvin’ on guitar. The album was released on June 3, 1977, just six months after an assassination attempt was made on Bob Marley’s life in Jamaica in December, forcing him to flee to London, where Exodus was recorded.
This June marks the 40th anniversary of Exodus named the ‘Best Album of the 20th Century’ by Time magazine in 1999 with a series of four separate reissues, three of which will feature Exodus 40 – The Movement Continues, son Ziggy Marley’s newly curated ‘restatement’ of the original album.
As part of the celebration, Ziggy Marley has intimately revisited the original session recordings, uncovering unused and never-before-heard vocals, lyric phrasing and instrumentation, incorporating and transforming these various elements into brand-new session takes.
A Super Deluxe, four-LP, two-7′ single vinyl version includes the original LP, Ziggy Marley’s restatement Exodus 40 The Movement Continues, an Exodus Live set recorded at London s Rainbow Theatre the week of the album s release, Punky Reggae Party LP which includes a previously unreleased extended mix of ‘Keep On Moving’, and a pair of vinyl 7′ singles, including ‘Waiting in Vain’ b/w ‘Roots’ and ‘Smile Jamaica (Part One)’ b/w ‘Smile Jamaica (Part Two).’
320 kbps | 102 MB | LINKS
Moon Duo is the latest creative endeavour from Ripley Johnson, guitarist and singer in the mighty Wooden Shjips. The Killing Time EP retains some of that bands more krautrock-inspired, minimalist principles, but ditches the heavy guitars and more psychedelic tendencies. Consequently there’s a stark economy to the title track, installing a hefty, romping bassline above machine-generated drums and a cyclone of background detritus, while elsewhere you’ll find more tranced-out moments of grainy stargazing wonderment.
1. Killing Time
3. Dead West
5. Boppers Hat (Bonus Track)
6. Run Around (Bonus Track)
7. Dead West, Pt. II (Bonus Track
Wheeler Walker Jr / Ol' Wheeler Жанр : Country Rock Страна : USA Год издания : 2017 Аудиокодек : MP3 Тип рипа : tracks Битрейт аудио : 320 kbps Продолжительность : 33:12 Треклист : 01.